Procedure of Comparative Analysis of Effectiveness of Regional Nationalities Policies
The following components of regional nationalities policies have been considered: legal basis, instruments and mechanisms of ethnic policies implementation, practice of nationalities policies conduct, institutional foundations for these policies conduct, financial resources allocated for nationalities policies.
Parameters under consideration
A level of regional national policies’ legal basis has been assessed with the following characteristics:
Instruments of regional nationalities policies implementation has been characterized by the following parameters:
Practice of nationalities policies implementation has been assessed by the following parameters:
Institutional foundations of nationalities policies have been assessed by the following characteristics:
♦ availability/lack of respective inter-agency coordination body of a regional
♦ availability/lack of consultative body under a regional chief;
♦ availability/lack of the institution of the Authorized human rights agent (regional ombudsmen);
♦ availability/lack of inter-nationalities relations monitoring performed by a regional executive power structures
♦ availability/lack of regional executive power structures’ monitoring of mass media activities in the inter-ethnic relations sphere.
Financial foundations of nationalities policies have been assessed by the following parameters:
to activities within nationalities policy;
All in all, 29 parameters of policies towards ethnic minorities have been analyzed.
Procedure of analysis
The comprehensive assessment of regional nationalities policies’ efficiency (index of efficiency of policies towards ethnic minorities residing in i-region) is a product of local criteria of efficiency (specific indices) aggregation in the following blocks: Li, legal basis of nationalities policies; Pi, instruments of these policies implementation; POi, practical policies; INi, institutional foundations; Fi, financial basis.
Legislation index, i.e. index of legislation elaboration for i-region is:
Li = SUMj Lij/m, (1)
where j is a parameter of the block with values varying from 0 to 1 (all parameters are calibrated for the purpose of calculations), m is quantity of parameters in the block, m = 5 (availability of regional laws on nationalities policy; quality of their elaboration; availability of laws on authorization of nationalities policy programs; availability of regional nationalities policy concepts; quality of its elaboration).
POi, practical policy index and INi, index of institutional foundations of national policies are calculated in a similar way:
POi = SUMj POij/m, (2)
where j is a parameter of the block, m = 5 (availability of inter-ethnic communication centers; support of various actions by regional authorities; support of national minorities’ mass media; development of national minorities’ education facilities and programs; non-conventional solutions)
INi = SUMj INij/m, (3)
Where j is a parameter of the block, m = 6 (availability and type of special structures within executive power bodies; availability of inter-agency coordination body within a regional executive power; availability of the consultative body under a regional chief; availability of the Authorized human rights agent (regional Ombudsmen); interethnic relations monitoring performed by regional executive power structures; regional executive power structures’ monitoring of mass media activities in the interethnic relations sphere).
A different procedure has been used for calculation of Pi, i.e. instruments of nationalities policy implementation (regional programs) index as well for calculation of Fi, i.e. index of nationalities policy funding.
For calculation of Pi, i.e. instruments of national policies implementation index parameters describing development of complex programs as well as development of specific programs that affect nationalities policy issues (availability of complex programs of regional nationalities policy, quality of their elaboration, experience of their implementation; availability of specific programs of regional nationalities policy, quality of their elaboration, experience of their implementation).
Initially PCi, index of complex programs development and PSi, index of special programs development are calculated for every region:
PCi = SUMj PCij /m where j is a parameter of a given block, m = 3; (4)
PSi = SUMj PSij/m where j is a parameter of a given block, m = 3 (5)
At the second stage index Pi, i.e. index of instruments of nationalities policy implementation is calculated as the cumulative index of regional programs development.
Proceeding from the assumption that complex target regional programs of nationalities policy are the most effective instrument of nationalities policy implementation in a region, if such programs are available implementation of competing special regional programs is considered as a certain flaw of regional nationalities policy.
Taking this remark into account we calculate Pi index of instruments of nationalities policy implementation as follows:
Pi = MAX (PCi +k*(1- PSi); PSi) / (m+k), (6)
where k is coefficient (in calculations it is assumed that value of k is equal to 2) and PSi is the parameter that characterizes availability of special programs. PSi acquires values from 0 (total lack of special programs) to 1 (special programs are available). If complex program and special programs are available PSi acquires fractional values depending on competitive strength of special programs.
Therefore, if the complex program is available in a region while special programs are lacking the PCi value of this region increases by k/(m+k).
Anyway, in calculation of Pi index the fact whether programs (complex or special) are elaborated in a particular region or not is taken into account.
In calculation of Fi index of nationalities policy funding the following formula is applied:
Fi = SUMj (Fij + k*Fi6) / (m+k-1) (7)
where j is a parameter of this block (j is not equal to 6), m = 7 (level of elaboration of financial block of nationalities policy program; adequacy of a regional budget funding of regional nationalities policy programs; financial discipline; transparency of the authorized budgets; transparency of a regional budget execution statement; scales of current nationalities policy funding from a regional budget; amount of means drawn up from budgets of other levels and off-budget sources), k is coefficient (in calculations it is assumed that k is equal to 2) while Fi6 is a parameter which characterizes scale of funding.
Thus, in contrast to calculation of other blocks’ indices a greater weight is ascribed to one of parameters, i.e., to scale of nationalities policy funding.
In calculation of the integral index of regional nationalities policy several approaches are possible. These approaches differ by the ideology of particular block indices aggregation.
Proceeding from assumption that all blocks have the same significance for assessment of regional nationalities policy it is logical to assemble particular block indices with the same weight.
Then IEMPIi = SUMj (Li + Pi + POi + INi + Fi) /n (8)
where n = 5 (number of particular indices).
Supposing that one or several particular indices has (have) a greater weight(s) one may resort to the weighted IEMPIi index. For example, if we suppose that funding of nationalities policy has a greater significance that its other components we may use the following standardized index:
IEMPIi = SUMj (Li + Pi + POi + INi + k*Fi) / (n+k-1) (9)
where coefficient k is greater that 1. (In fact, we used k = 1.5).
A considerable flaw of the approach just described is an implied assumption that components of nationalities policy (legal basis, programs of nationalities policy implementation, institutional foundations of nationalities policy conduct, financial basis) are interchangeable.
However they are a far cry from being interchangeable: a splendid legal basis wouldn’t work if funding or implementation instruments are lacking. The same is true in respect of other components of nationalities policy: gaps in this or that sphere reduce its effectiveness drastically.
Calculations of IEMPIi index in accordance with formula (9) characterize efforts of authorities aimed at development of nationalities policy potential and may be interpreted as development in infrastructure of policy towards ethnic minorities in a region.
Effectiveness of a regional nationalities policy is determined by coupling (balanced development) of each of its components. Taking this thesis in consideration it seems logical to calculate EEMPIi index, i.e. index of effectiveness of policy towards ethnic minorities as the mean geometric index which takes into account balance among particular indices:
EEMPIi = POWER (Li* Pi* POi* INi * Fi; 0.2) (10)
Results of calculations of regional IEMPIi and EEMPIi indices made in accordance with formulas (9) and (10) are given in Appendix “Assessment of comparative effectiveness of policy towards ethnic minorities residing in constituent part of the Russian Federation”.